Class Promise


Promise objects represent the eventual result of an asynchronous operation. The primary way of interacting with a promise is through its then method, which registers callbacks to receive either a promise’s eventual value or the reason why the promise cannot be fulfilled.


  • promise is an object or function with a then method whose behavior conforms to this specification.
  • thenable is an object or function that defines a then method.
  • value is any legal JavaScript value (including undefined, a thenable, or a promise).
  • exception is a value that is thrown using the throw statement.
  • reason is a value that indicates why a promise was rejected.
  • settled the final resting state of a promise, fulfilled or rejected.

A promise can be in one of three states: pending, fulfilled, or rejected.

Promises that are fulfilled have a fulfillment value and are in the fulfilled state. Promises that are rejected have a rejection reason and are in the rejected state. A fulfillment value is never a thenable.

Promises can also be said to resolve a value. If this value is also a promise, then the original promise's settled state will match the value's settled state. So a promise that resolves a promise that rejects will itself reject, and a promise that resolves a promise that fulfills will itself fulfill.

Basic Usage:

let promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
  // on success

  // on failure

promise.then(function(value) {
  // on fulfillment
}, function(reason) {
  // on rejection

Advanced Usage:

Promises shine when abstracting away asynchronous interactions such as XMLHttpRequests.

function getJSON(url) {
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
    let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();'GET', url);
    xhr.onreadystatechange = handler;
    xhr.responseType = 'json';
    xhr.setRequestHeader('Accept', 'application/json');

    function handler() {
      if (this.readyState === this.DONE) {
        if (this.status === 200) {
        } else {
          reject(new Error('getJSON: `' + url + '` failed with status: [' + this.status + ']'));

getJSON('/posts.json').then(function(json) {
  // on fulfillment
}, function(reason) {
  // on rejection

Unlike callbacks, promises are great composable primitives.

  values[0] // => postsJSON
  values[1] // => commentsJSON

  return values;




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