Package @ember-data/adapter



In order to properly fetch and update data, EmberData needs to understand how to connect to your API.

Adapters accept various kinds of requests from the store and manage fulfillment of the request from your API.

Request Flow

When the store decides it needs to issue a request it uses the following flow to manage the request and process the data.

  • find the appropriate adapter
  • issue the request to the adapter
  • await the adapter's response
    • if an error occurs reject with the error
    • if no error
      • if there is response data
        • pass the response data to the appropriate serializer
        • update the cache using the JSON:API formatted data from the serializer's response
      • return the primary record(s) associated with the request

Request Errors

When a request errors and your adapter does not have the ability to recover from the error, you may either reject the promise returned by your adapter method with the error or simply throw the error.

If the request was for a createRecord updateRecord or deleteRecord special rules apply to how this error will affect the state of the store and additional properties on the Error class may be used. See the documentation for these methods in the MinimumAdapterInterface for more information.

Implementing an Adapter

There are seven required adapter methods, one for each of the primary request types that EmberData issues.

They are:

  • findRecord
  • findAll
  • queryRecord
  • query
  • createRecord
  • updateRecord
  • deleteRecord

Each of these request types has a matching store method that triggers it and matching requestType that is passed to the serializer's normalizeResponse method.

If your app only reads data but never writes data, it is not necessary to implement the methods for create, update, and delete. This extends to all of the store's find methods with the exception of findRecord (findAll, query, queryRecord): if you do not use the store method in your app then your Adapter does not need the method.

import EmberObject from '@ember/object';

async function fetchData(url, options = {}) {
  let response = await fetch(`./${modelName}s/${id}`, options);
  return response.toJSON();

export default class ApplicationAdapter extends EmberObject {
  findRecord(_, { modelName }, id) {
    return fetchData(`./${modelName}s/${id}`);

Adapter Resolution

store.adapterFor(name) will lookup adapters defined in app/adapters/ and return an instance.

adapterFor first attempts to find an adapter with an exact match on name, then falls back to checking for the presence of an adapter named application.

If no adapter is found, an error will be thrown.


// lookup paths (in order) =>
//   app/adapters/author.js
//   app/adapters/application.js

Most requests in EmberData are made with respect to a particular type (or modelName) (e.g., "get me the full collection of books" or "get me the employee whose id is 37"). We refer to this as the primary resource type.

adapterFor is used by the store to find an adapter with a name matching that of the primary resource type for the request, which then falls back to the application adapter.

It is recommended that applications define only a single application adapter and serializer where possible, only implementing an adapter specific to the type when absolutely necessary.

If you need to support multiple API versions for the same type, the per-type strategy for defining adapters might not be adequate.

If you have multiple APIs or multiple API versions and the single application adapter and per-type strategy does not suite your needs, one strategy is to write an application adapter and serializer that make use of options to specify the desired format when making a request, then forwards to the request to the desired adapter or serializer as needed.

export default class Adapter extends EmberObject {
  findRecord(store, schema, id, snapshot) {
    let { apiVersion } = snapshot.adapterOptions;
    return this.adapterFor(`-api-${apiVersion}`).findRecord(store, schema, id, snapshot);

Using an Adapter

Any adapter in app/adapters/ can be looked up by name using store.adapterFor(name).

Default Adapters

Applications whose API's structure endpoint URLs very close to or exactly the REST or JSON:API convention, the @ember-data/adapter package contains implementations these applications can extend.

Many applications will find writing their own adapter to be allow greater flexibility, customization, and maintenance than attempting to override methods in these adapters.